Required and Recommended Immunizations
Stanford University REQUIRES the following immunization based on the risk for first-year college students contracting these conditions.
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR)
Measles, mumps, and rubella are serious communicable diseases that can spread in close living or classroom environments. This immunization combination is so important that it’s required for new students (to prevent the possibility of a campus epidemic). All students must be vaccinated to prevent outbreaks.
Vaden Health Center RECOMMENDS the following immunizations based on the risk for first-year college students contracting these conditions.
This immunization is a series of two inoculations and is recommended for adults who have not had chickenpox.
What it is: Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver
that can lead to liver failure, liver cancer or death.
Symptoms: There may be none, especially in infants or young children. However, it can also bring on fever, abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diminished appetite or jaundice.
Prevalence: It strikes about 5 percent of adults in the USA and more in other areas.
Seriousness: Potentially very serious.
Shot effectiveness: Extremely effective. This is the only vaccine that can prevent a sexually transmitted infection.
Recommendations: We strongly recommend getting this shot. This is especially recommended for the following groups of high-risk people:
- Individuals who are sexually active
- Men who have sex with men
- Anyone who has multiple sex partners
- Health care workers
- Anyone who has had a sexually transmitted infection (including HIV)
- People who use injectable drugs or live in a household with a Hepatitis B carrier
Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap)
One dose of tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is currently recommended for all students, ages 11-64, regardless of when the last tetanus/diphtheria (Td) booster was given. The Td booster is typically given every 10 years, but because of the prevalance of pertussis, we are recommending that students have the Tdap immunization now, even if it has not been 10 years since the last Td.
Note - Pertussis is epidemic in California. The state is
seeing the largest outbreak since 1958. You should make sure you are up to date
with pertussis vaccination. Whooping cough - known medically as pertussis - is a
highly contagious respiratory tract infection.
Although it initially resembles an ordinary cold, whooping cough may eventually turn more serious, particularly in infants. Whooping cough is most contagious before the coughing starts.
The best way to prevent pertussis is through vaccination. The whooping cough booster vaccine for adolescents and adults is called Tdap. It protects against whooping cough, tetanus, and diphtheria.
What it is: Inflammation of the lining of the brain and
spinal cord caused by a bacteria
Symptoms: Fever, severe headache, stiff neck and mental changes, accompanied possibly by a flat red rash, particularly on arms and legs
Prevalence: Relatively rare, although there are 1.5 cases per 100,000 in the USA for all ages. Recent evidence indicates that first-year students living in residence halls are at higher risk, however.
Seriousness: Meningococcal disease can lead to death within 24 hours.
Shot effectiveness: Moderate. The vaccine is about 85 percent effective against the strains of bacteria it addresses. Yet it doesn’t protect against meningococcal type B, which accounts for about 30 percent of cases in college students.
Recommendations: Public Health experts recommend that students who live in group residences and dormitories consider getting this vaccine, especially first-year undergraduates. Others at higher risk are people with weakened immune systems and those who travel to high-incidence areas.
Two doses of Hepatitis A vaccine are recommended for travelers, food handlers, men who have sex with men, and individuals with certain chronic diseases.
This injection is recommended to help prevent pneumonia in students with asthma or those with a history of smoking. It is also important for students with other chronic diseases of the lung; heart or liver; those with diabetes; sickle cell disease; splenectomy; or immunosuppressive conditions. Other indications for vaccination include Alaska Native and/or American Indian heritage.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
This vaccine series of three shots is for females and males.
Females from 11 through 26 years of age can benefit from protection against the following diseases:
- Cervical cancer
- Abnormal and precancerous cervical lesions
- Abnormal and precancerous vaginal lesions
- Abnormal and precancerous vulvar lesions
- Genital warts
- Anal cancer and precancerous lesions
Males from 9 through 26 years of age can benefit from protection against the following diseases:
- Genital warts
- Anal cancer and precancerous lesions
The immunizations help prevent, but will not treat, these diseases.
Typically, a primary series of polio vaccine is administered in childhood with inactivated virus (IPV) alone, oral virus (OPV) alone, or IPV/OPV sequentially. An IPV booster may be needed for travel after 18 years of age.
Flu shots are recommended for all adults, but especially for the following groups of people who are at risk for serious complications from influenza:
- People 50 years of age or older
- Those with chronic heart or lung conditions, including asthma
- Anyone needing regular medical care
- Those with a metabolic disease (such as diabetes), chronic kidney disease or a weakened immune system
- Women who will be more than three months pregnant during the flu season
The flu vaccine is also recommended for students or others in institutional settings (such as those who reside in dormitories). Anyone who wants to lower their chance of getting influenza can also get a flu shot.